Le Lean Canvas à télécharger

Téléchargez directement le powerpoint du Lean Canvas en Français. Et la version Google Slide.

Le Lean Canvas est une variante du Business Model Canvas, adapté aux start-ups et basé sur la méthode Lean Startup. Mis au point par l’entrepreneur Ash Maurya, ce canvas permet de rapidement formaliser vos hypothèses principales sur votre idée pour ensuite les tester.

Ce canvas comprend 9 cases qui reprennent les éléments essentiels de votre projet: les segments de clients, les problèmes de ces clients, votre proposition de valeur, la solution, les revenus, les canaux, la solution, les indicateurs clés, les coûts de votre projet et votre avantage compétitif.

Derrière tous ces éléments se cachent les risques potentiels de votre projet. A partir de ce canvas, vous pouvez tester de manière systématique chacune de ces hypothèses. Par exemple, est-ce que les clients ont bien le problème que vous souhaitez résoudre? Est-ce que votre offre leur parle? Est-ce qu’ils sont prêts à payer le prix que vous demandez? etc…

En fonction des réponses obtenues à ces questions, ajustez votre canvas et travaillez sur votre plan B. Une nouvelle cible peut impliquer de nouveaux canaux de distribution, un nouveau problème peut impliquer une nouvelle proposition de valeur, une nouvelle solution peut impliquer de nouveaux coûts, etc.

Téléchargez directement le powerpoint du Lean Canvas en Français. Et la version Google Slide.

Ce canvas est un document vivant qui évolue avec le temps. Vous pouvez commencer par le remplir en équipe, voici l’ordre à suivre :

Les segments clients

Listez les différents segments de consommateurs qui vont utiliser ou acheter votre solution. Soyez aussi précis que possible. Évitez de regrouper les segments de consommateurs par leurs données démographiques (jeunes de 20-25 ans), mais regroupez-les selon leurs comportements (ex: randonneurs voyageant 2 fois par an).

Parmi ces clients potentiels, identifiez qui vous semble être les “early adopters”, c’est-à-dire les premiers utilisateurs de votre offre. Il n’y a pas de bonne ou mauvaise réponse à ce stade. Posez-vous la question: si mon offre était disponible, qui serait la première personne à l’acheter? Celle qui en a le plus besoin? Cette première personne est votre early adopter. 

Pour aller plus loin vous pouvez utiliser aussi un template de “persona”

Les problèmes

Quels problèmes souhaitez-vous résoudre pour ces clients ? Ici, pensez à ce que votre client cherche à accomplir. 

Lorsque les gens veulent voir une tâche accomplie, ils achètent un produit ou utilisent un service qui le fera à leur place. Il faut donc comprendre quelles sont les tâches que vos clients cherchent à accomplir et pour lesquelles ils sont susceptibles d’adopter la solution que votre entreprise pourrait concevoir.

Listez les problèmes que vos clients rencontrent aujourd’hui pour accomplir leur tâches. Précisez autant que possible les problèmes qui vous semblent les plus importants. Pour cela vous pouvez aussi utiliser le job-to-be-done framework.

Pour info, les problèmes type: “manque de temps”, “trop cher” sont trop vagues, il faut donc les preciser et chercher le vrai problème derriere.

Les alternatives existantes

Comment est-ce que le client résout ces problèmes aujourd’hui ? Quelles sont les solutions qu’il a adopté ? Quels sont les points forts et faibles de ces solutions ?

Les alternatives existantes sont vos concurrents directs. Il faut comprendre en quoi ces solutions répondent de manière complète ou pas aux attentes de vos clients. Tout problème avec ses solutions alternatives représente une vraie opportunité pour vous.

La proposition de valeur unique


La proposition de valeur est la promesse du service que vous allez fournir au client. C’est la valeur que votre client doit voir dans votre solution.  Elle résume simplement le bénéfice apporté à votre clientèle.

Une façon très simple de construire votre proposition de valeur est de dire en une phrase claire l’inverse du problème identifié.

Par exemple, si le problème auquel vous vous attaquez est :

  • “les PME ont du mal à trouver des designers fiables dans leur région”,

la proposition de valeur pourrait être :

  • “ Trouvez un designer fiable proche de votre PME”. 

Éventuellement, vous pouvez rendre votre proposition de valeur unique pour vous différencier dans un marché où la concurrence est déjà établie. 

La solution

Quelle est votre solution pour résoudre les problèmes du client ? Vous pouvez décrire ici votre solution et ses principales caractéristiques / fonctionnalités. Le savoir-faire unique que vous possédez, le fonctionnement, la logistique etc…

Ici l’ingénieur ou concepteur sera très à l’aise.

Les canaux

Par quels canaux allez-vous atteindre vos clients ? Quel mode de communication votre cible préfère-t-elle ?

Ici le marketeur sera à l’aise. Les canaux et stratégies marketing abondent entre le inbound et outbound, account based marketing, content marketing, le social selling, growth hacking etc…

A ce stage, contentez vous d’hypothèses de haut niveau que vous aurez l’option d’affiner au fur et à mesure.

Pour aller plus loin, vous pouvez regarder le framework AARRR et les différentes techniques de growth hacking qui évoluent en permanence.

Les sources de revenus

Sans revenu il n’y a pas de business. Comment est-ce que votre projet va générer des revenus? Qui va payer combien et pourquoi exactement ? 

Décrivez chaque source de revenu et le montant généré par transaction ou client sur chaque source.

Voici quelques sources de revenu que l’on trouve couramment:

  • abonnements récurrent (mobile, magazine)
  • achat d’un produit occasionnellement (vêtements, mobilier)
  • location d’un produit transformé en service (location de voiture, location de trottinettes)
  • affiliation / recommandation ou modèle publicitaire (magazine, facebook)
  • achat de fonctionnalités sur un service freemium (saas enterprise, jeux mobile)
  • achat d’un produit et de ses “recharges” récurrentes (imprimantes, rasoirs)
  • donation (wikipedia, recherche)

N’oubliez pas que le prix a le pouvoir de changer votre perception du produit. Le prix fait partie du produit et détermine même vos clients.

La structure des coûts

Combien va coûter le lancement de l’activité ? L’achat des moyens de production ? 

Ici vous pouvez estimer les coûts fixes et variables en fonction de votre solution. Comptez les coûts de licences, le personnel, les coûts de production, les coûts opérationnels, marketing etc..

Cela reste une estimation qui s’affinera au fur et à mesure que votre projet avance.

Les indicateurs clés

Quels chiffres sont à surveiller en priorité afin de vérifier la vigueur de votre activité ? Est-ce que vous progressez, stagnez ou régressez ?

Ces indicateurs doivent être caractéristiques de l’état de votre business. L’évolution de ces indicateurs va vous permettre de valider ou de réfuter certaines de vos hypothèses, de mesurer vos progrès et les étapes clés de votre parcours.

Par exemple ici on peut trouver comme indicateurs:

  • taux d’inscription
  • taux de première utilisation de telle fonction
  • nombre de commandes par client
  • taux de renouvellement
  • nombre d’inscrits

L’analyse de ces indicateurs doit vous aider à agir et prendre une décision lorsque le résultat d’un indicateur n’est pas satisfaisant.

Pour aller plus loin on peut relier ces indicateurs au framework AARRR

L’avantage compétitif

En quoi êtes-vous dans une meilleure position sur ce projet par rapport à vos concurrents? C’est ce qui vous donne un avantage par rapport à la concurrence et ne pourra pas être copié facilement.

Cela peut-être :

  • votre expertise, votre expérience, vos compétences ;
  • l’accès à une ressource unique ;
  • une information privilégiée ;
  • le soutien des bons « experts »
  • une équipe unique sur-motivée ;
  • une légitimité personnelle ;
  • un effet de réseau considérable ;
  • une barrière à l’entrée ;
  • une exclusivité.

Voilà, j’espère que ces explications vous ont été utiles. Si vous avez des commentaires ou questions, n’hésitez pas à me joindre.

Téléchargez directement le powerpoint du Lean Canvas en Français. Et la version Google Slide.

Business ideas are worthless

Ideas are seen as the starting point of successful businesses.

The truths is that the initial idea doesn’t really count in the success of a business. I would argue that what matter over the idea is the the vision you have and how you will pursue it.

Here is how Jeff Bezos express it:

It’s easy to have ideas.

It’s very hard to turn ideas into a successful product. There are a lot of steps in between and it takes persistence and relentlessness. So I always tell people who think I want to be entrepreneurs: you need a combination of stubborn relentlessness and flexibility. And you have to know when to be which.

Basically you need to be stubborn on your vision otherwise it will be too easy to give up.

But you need to be very flexible on the details, because as you go along pursuing your vision you will find that some of your preconceptions were  wrong and you’re going to need to be able to change those things.

Taking an idea successfully all the way to the market and turning it into a real product, that people care about, that really improves people’s lives, is a lot of hard work.

https://www.tiktok.com/@endlessvalue/video/6872428183224864005?lang=en

Technology in search of a customer

Listen to Steve Jobs on Customer centricity versus Technology Centricity. A valuable business lesson that companies and employees forget very quickly. We all have solutions in search of problems…

There’s a lot of technology in search of a customer.

You know in other words a lot of companies do things because it’s technically possible. But in the end, nobody cares, nobody wants to buy them.

So we see a lot of that: technology in search of a customer.

I think the hard thing is to figure out what can be done, but also what people really want to do.

What we found is an example in iPods, is that most of our customers don’t care about having a radio built into their iPod. As a matter of fact, the reason they got an iPod is because they don’t want some DJ in radio station determining the music they listen to. They want to determine it themselves, they want to build their own playlists. And so that’s why they buy an iPod. We have a radio feature that you can attach to your iPod now, but most customers don’t buy it because they want their own playlists.

It’s a lot easier to come up with technology that people don’t want than it is to come up with technology that people do want. 

Understanding this might be the reason why Apple keeps beating other companies and growing year after year?

And the car turned red – An innovation story at Nissan

Every year, Nissan Europe runs a competition called the Chairman’s Innovation Awards. It is open to all employees who want to propose new ideas for Nissan. A few years back, John Ferguson, a British technical architect, proposed a technology that allows customers to change the colour of their car whenever they want. John won the Chairman Innovation Award. John’s idea was incubated in Nissan Innovation Lab where the Innovation Coach guided John to explore his idea using the Lean Startup approach.

Lean Startup sees an idea as a stack of hypotheses hiding the risks behind the project. The approach requires identifying those hypotheses and confronting them with reality to see if the idea can stand. In John’s project, the two initial biggest risks were posed by the technical feasibility and the customer’s desirability for such a feature. Was there a market for his idea?

With no previous experience of innovation projects, the Lean Startup approach gave John a structured methodology to guide him forward. And it was a huge help he says: “I very quickly saw the benefit of Lean Startup. The coaches explained how this was going to work and gave me deadlines, things to deliver, which I really needed. It would have been quite difficult without it.”

On the technical side 

For technical feasibility, John found a company developing an e-ink technology. “I went out to different companies, made contact with them. We settled on one company to provide a prototype.”

On the market side, there were 3 big business risks:

  1. we didn’t really know who the customers are
  2. we didn’t know if they really have a strong need
  3. we didn’t know what the customer would commit to

John had to figure out who was interested in his new feature. Who wants to change the color of their car with a simple mobile app? And more importantly, who will pay for it and how much? John drafted about 10 canvases with possible customer profiles and the pain point that this technology can address. After a quick prioritization exercise, it was time to get out of the building and confront his understanding with the reality. He went down the street to meet car buyers: “The hardest part of the whole activity was when I ended up in the street and talked to people. That will live with me for a long time. I still have nightmares of standing on the street corner of London, trying to stop people to see if they want to buy. But it was the true gold.”

He asked about the challenges of buying a car, trying to grasp the influence the colour has when buying a car. It was not about asking leading questions but rather about giving the person a chance to open up and explain what they found frustrating when buying a car.

One of the biggest learnings the coach gave me was: you don’t go up to a customer and say “Would you buy this?” because the customer will say “yes” because he wants to please you. So, what you get is a kind of positive distortion of the truth. If you then say to them: “Ok then, give me the money now.”, they would say “Oh no!”.

People were talking to John and saying things like: “I spend 2 hours a day inside my car, I don’t care how it looks like outside”, or: “I just want a black car because I don’t want to have to wash it.”

Those interviews brought new perspectives and a refined understanding of the customer’s needs. John decided to focus on one specific customer segment: the fashionista who would like the color of their car to match their style of the day.

To probe that segment, John got a video produced to show the product in action: a TV advert based on the idea that the customer was able to accessorise the car to their outfit. The actress in the advert is wearing a red dress. She walks outside; her car is blue. She pulls out her cell phone, opens up an app and chooses the colour red. And the car turned to red.

The video was broadcasted on the Nissan Facebook page. John analysed the results: ”There wasn’t any kind of strong indicators that people were clambering for this. The idea itself just wasn’t as strong as we thought it was.”

It requires a lot of courage to be able to say: “Well I had this idea, but in light of certain facts, it’s not a good idea to go for.” There is never any certainty with a new product.

John reflected on his experience: “I found an appreciation for failure, positive failure. I didn’t want to have to spend millions to realise that this thing wasn’t going to sell. You do feel disappointed, but at the same time, it’s a learning experience. There have been times in the last year where I’ve reflected on it and wondered: what if we had tried with a different persona in the video rather than focus on fashionista? Would we had gotten a different answer? And you can play this game forever. There was enough evidence to suggest that there wasn’t a business case. One of the things the coaches told me is: “Even if it fails, you’ve succeeded because what you’ve done was proving (in this case disproving) an assumption. You’ve avoided the company wasting a great deal of money, time and effort.” Which is exactly what Lean Startup is all about.

So, a positive failure. Was the coaching helpful? John told the coaches: “The danger is when the consultant wants to please you because he knows you’re paying him. But you weren’t afraid to say to me: “No John. What are you going to deliver this week? What are your assumptions?” You were really pushing me out of my comfort zone because I did not come from a business background. And I appreciated that. It really helped me. You took me through processing, and I think you judged me right, pretty early on, you knew how far you can push me and when to step back. And I think it worked very well. It was a really positive experience.”

When John was in the Nissan Innovation Lab, he was coached by the TangoStart.com team: Iain Wallace and Franck Debane

How coding shapes your thinking

This article was first written and published for the Business Coaching Magazine.

When you write software all day, it shapes your thinking. Your brain is trained and you build up mental automation.

Interestingly, some of these thinking patterns are the same as those of successful entrepreneurs.

If one imagines a developer as a geeky introvert hiding behind his computer and closed in his bubble, what’s happening on the surface is very different from what is happening in his mind.

While programming, a developer is hyper-focused. He is on a mission to develop a software. So what is developing?

Developing is about learning

With this goal in mind, the developer drafts a possible architecture to build his software and gets to work. He writes his first piece of code and tests it.

The feedback is immediate! Does it work? Does it compile?

If not, the developer reviews and adapts his code, correcting his thinking, re-writing his program and testing it again and again until it works.

He revisits his thinking and learns how to build this piece of software.

In fact, after the programming is done, a developer can rewrite the exact same software about a 1/3 of the time it took him to write the initial program. He has learned and corrected his approach.

Working like this teaches you that you never get it right the first time. Test and learn becomes a reflex.

This is the thing developers share with entrepreneurs. The ability to test, learn and adapt.

Coding is about reaching out

Bugs and program errors are sometimes very hard to find, understand and fix. The developer needs to find the source of the bug and the solution to it. Very often the developer searches the web for similar cases or reaches out to the developer community to get help. Getting help and learning from peers is typical behaviour of developers.

Coding is about limitless possibilities

New applications are always amazing us: self-driving cars, facial recognition, complex computations, medical algorithms, search engine, etc… Developers KNOW that anything is possible with software. It’s just a matter of time to build it and perfect it. Developers see possibilities where others see obstacles and blockers.

Coding is understanding the bigger picture

Before coding, the developer takes a step back to understand the wider context of his work:

  1. De-zooming to grasp the essential function required. How is the software going to be used? what should it do exactly? How will this bring value to the company?
  2. Imagining the solution: the developer needs to understand the technical environment in which his software will work- like a piece that must fit perfectly inside larger puzzle.

Coding is an act of creation

The developer creates the software. He imagines the solution and brings it to life by coding the way he wants. He chooses how to build it, his tools he will use, where he will start, the functions and variables of the program, etc.. Developers have the freedom to express their creativity. The only condition is that it has to work.

Coding makes you happy

Programming is rewarding. I realized a few years ago while programming that developers experience a state of flow defined by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi as a state of energized focus, full involvement and enjoyment.

To enter this state of flow you typically need :

  • a clearly defined goal
  • a challenge adapted to your skill
  • immediate feedback

As a result, you enter a state of flow recognisable by:

  • an altered perception of time. …
  • great inner clarity
  • and a sense of serenity

Programming allows you to experience this flow.

Personally, I have noticed those patterns as a developer and while coaching innovation teams with developers. Developers already have those mental automations.

Template PowerPoint pour le Business Model Canvas

Les entreprises utilisent de plus en plus souvent le Business Model Canvas d’Alexander Osterwalder. Parfois appelé le BMC, c’est devenu maintenant un outil  incontournable de notre génération.

Parfois l’on me demande une version powerpoint, alors voici un template a disposition.

Télécharger le Business Model Canvas en powerpoint ici.

Et ici pour la version Google Slide du Business Model Canvas.

L’organisation est simple ainsi que la compréhension de l’outil. Grâce au caractère synthétique du document, cette unique feuille de papier est facilement adaptable. Elle indique comment les principaux moteurs d’une entreprise fonctionnent ensemble. Elle identifie les sources de revenus, la clientèle cible, les produits et les détails du financement. Très rapidement, on obtient une vision claire du marché visé, des clients, de l’offre, et de l’environnement proche.

A quoi sert le business model canvas précisément?

Lancer un nouveau business: Il sert à poser les hypothèses sur lesquels repose votre business à construire. Il structure votre réflexion sur les 3 axes essentiels: la désirabilité, la faisabilité et la viabilité. Parmi les hypothèses qui fondent votre business model, vous pouvez voir lesquels sont validées et lesquelles restent à valider.

Mieux comprendre son entreprise: En mettant sur papier le business model de votre entreprise, vous faites apparaître les rouages qui permettent de faire fonctionner l’entreprise. Mieux comprendre l’activité c’est aussi identifier les points forts, et élément à renforcer. Les points fort peuvent alors être transformer en avantage compétitif et construire la base de nouvelles offres.

Étudier ses concurrents et partenaires: De même que votre propre entreprise, ce modèle nous permet de clarifier le fonctionnement de nos concurrents et partenaires. Cette analyse peut vous aider à optimiser vos opération, à réduire les risques et à acquérir des ressources. Les business model canvas se trouve particulièrement utile lors de creating joint venture. L’on peut y voir très clairement ce que chaque entreprise apporte.

Si vous voulez le detail en video, j’ai eu l’occasion de présenter le Business Model Canvas sur OpenClassroom.

The right path to take – advice from Steve Jobs

In May 1997, Apple held its Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) in San Jose, California. At that time, Steve Jobs was not CEO of the company. He was speaking as an advisor to the company. In this extract, Steve Jobs answers an challenging and rather agressive question from one the participant. His response elevate the debate and until today remain one of the best advice that businesses could take on product development.

One of the things I’ve always found is that you’ve got to start with the customer experience and work backwards to the technology.

You can’t start with the technology and try to figure out where you’re going to try to sell it.

I’ve made this mistake probably more than anybody else in this room, and I’ve got the scar tissue to prove it. And I know that it’s the case.

As we have tried to come up with a strategy and a vision for Apple, it started with ”What incredible benefits can we give to the customer? Where can we take the customer?” not starting with, “Let’s sit down with the engineers and figure out what awesome technology we have and then how are we going to market that.”.

And I think that’s the right path to take.

A few months later, when Steve Jobs became new CEO, Apple was on the the verge of bankruptcy. Under his leadership, Steve Job reinvented the company to become one the most successful company in the world.

Innovation grow business.

When doing business, you decide what are the fundamental directions you want to take. Remember to answers this question first: What incredible benefits can we give to the customer?

PowerPoint Template for Customer Profile in Value Proposition Design

“The more you know your customers, the more you can help them.”

an old friend used to remind me

The Customer Profile is useful to summarise and clarify our knowledge about the customer. It’s part of the Value Proposition Design from Strategyzer.

It maps out the jobs to be done, pains and gains of your customer. Doing so will help you to dig deeper into a specific customer segment and gain their perspectives.

Sometimes teams need to formalise this knowledge into a PowerPoint.

Download the PowerPoint version of the Customer Profile here.

I have also created a Google Slide version that you copy and can edit.

Customer Profile PowerPoint Template



How the perception of effort increases value

Value is relative

The value that a buyer sees and depends on the frame or perception they have about the product. To increase the perceived value of your product, you can influence and change that frame. One way to change it is to show that the product is the result of effort, energy, care, or complexity. Showing the effort behind the product increase the perception of value. Let me share how I learned this.

The perception of effort

I realised this for the first time when I was in Atlantic City. I was a student when I took a summer break from my engineering school in Paris to work in Atlantic City. It as a summer job, and the job was pushing the rolling chairs to push a rolling chair on up and down the boardwalk the the tourists. Tourist hired the chair, sat on it and like a taxi I pushed them away to their destination. Every morning I rented one of those chair for a fixed price and kept the money I earned from the different rides. Sometime I would get a tip on top of the agreed fair, sometime I wouldn’t.

I remember this particular time I took a couple in my chair for a ride. On that day, the sun what hitting hard. The passengers in the chair were in the shade but not me. I was getting hot and sweaty. To make matters worst the chair I had did not roll smoothy. I had to push harder the entire day. Arriving at destination I was dripping sweat.

As the couple paid, the they noticed me sweating and the women said:

“Give him a good tip, he worked hard.”

The good tip was the reward for my sweat. The same ride without the sweat would have been less.

The sweat was the proof of my effort. And because it was visible, the ride was worth more for the passengers.

The perceived value increased with the perception of the effort.

Read more on perceived value here.